Comfrey von Thrombophlebitis

Comfrey von Thrombophlebitis

Location Comfrey is a perennial herb of the Boraginaceae family. Native to the continent of Europe, numerous species are now cultivated throughout the world Stickel and Seitz Typically, comfrey species are found growing in disturbed sites, especially moist areas Culpeper Description Comfrey Prinzip der Behandlung von venösen Geschwüren has long, thick, dark roots, and hair-like lanceolate leaves comfrey von Thrombophlebitis grow in an alternating pattern along the stem.

Depending on the species, comfrey plants can grow anywhere from 5 to centimeters in height. They possess small, bell-shaped flowers that are colored in shades of purple, white, or pink and contain small black seeds. Believed to have both anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, various parts of the herb have been applied topically in preparations of comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, oils, demulcents, poultices, mucilages, or the like to speed healing and to relieve pain and swelling.

Though there are some medieval texts that offered words of caution against ingesting comfrey preparations, it was generally considered safe for treating internal ailments including indigestion, ulcers, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, gastrointestinal cramping or bleeds, respiratory congestion, diarrhea, and rheumatic complaints von Hildegard Oral preparations included decoctions and syrups Culpeper ; Comfrey von Thrombophlebitis and Bone Comfrey has also been consumed as a cooked green, though its culinary use was far less common than its medicinal utilization.

Comfrey also contains unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids PAs that are toxic Evans The discovery and identification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids PAs in comfrey led to changes in recommendations for its preparations and use both medicinally and in foods.

Medicinally, comfrey is still popular for topical treatment of wounds, burns, contusions, sprains, minor cuts or scrapes, swelling, and osteoarthritis, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. Allantoin compounds, responsible for the healing effects of comfrey, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, have been shown to stimulate cellular turnover comfrey von Thrombophlebitis tissue regeneration Fugh-Berman ; Foster ; Stickel and Seitz.

Comfrey roots contain a greater percent of allantoin than comfrey leaves Foster Comfrey leaves are sometimes used in teas, salads, cooked as vegetables or added to soups. In some instances, roasted comfrey roots have been used as a substitute for coffee Fugh-Berman Comfrey roots have ten times the concentration of PAs found in the leaves Foster ; however, adverse reactions have resulted from ingestion of comfrey leaves, too.

The plant alkaloids are highly water-soluble; boiling or steaming the leaves in several changes comfrey von Thrombophlebitis water may reduce toxicity. Even though some compounds in comfrey stimulate healing of damaged tissues and reduce inflammation, the benefits that oral ingestion may have for bronchitis, ulcers, diarrhea, or inflammatory GI conditions are generally outweighed by the risk of liver damage due to the toxic PAs naturally occurring in the herb Mills and Bone Comfrey is harmless when used topically and should not be consumed orally.

Adverse effects Ingestion of comfrey has resulted in many serious adverse effects including at least two deaths. A year-old man died from liver disease after consuming comfrey leaves Yeong In addition, an unpublished case was reported to USP Practitioners Reporting Network of a fatality resulting from liver damage in a man who drank comfrey tea.

These and numerous other studies have shown unsaturated PAs to be hepatotoxic—leading to cases of veno-occlusive disease, liver failure, and even death. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are poorly absorbed through the skin, unless broken, so topical use of comfrey is considered benign Fugh-Berman Although topical use of comfrey was well tolerated in many studies, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, a few cases of skin irritation occurred Koll ; Mills and Bone Trease and evans' pharmacognosy.

Radix extract ointment in the treatment of patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee: Symphyti in the treatment of ankle distorsions: Mills S, Bone K.

Stickel F, Seitz HK. Many herbs historically used for medicine are considered too toxic to use today; some of these herbs have caused deaths. Do not ingest these herbs based on information on this website. We have not provided sufficient information for the safe medicinal use of any of these herbs, nor sufficient information for treatment of poisoning.

All recreational use of these herbs is dangerous. Georgetown University Medical Center.

Wie man thrombophlebitis Volksmittel behandeln

Budd—Chiari syndrome is a very rare condition, affecting 1 in a million adults. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascitesand liver enlargement. The formation of a blood clot within the hepatic veins can lead to Budd—Chiari syndrome.

The syndrome can be fulminantcomfrey von Thrombophlebitis, acute, chronic, or asymptomatic. Lübeck Varikosette acute syndrome presents with rapidly progressive severe upper abdominal painyellow discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyesliver enlargementenlargement of the spleenfluid accumulation within the peritoneal cavityelevated liver enzymesand eventually encephalopathy, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis.

The fulminant syndrome presents early with encephalopathy and ascites. Liver cell death and severe lactic acidosis may be present as well. Caudate lobe enlargement is often present, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. The majority of patients have a slower-onset form of Budd—Chiari syndrome.

This can be painless. A system of venous collaterals Thrombophlebitis oder Hämorrhoiden form around the occlusion which may be seen on imaging as a "spider's web". Patients may progress to cirrhosis and show the signs of liver failure. On the other hand, incidental finding of a silent, asymptomatic form may not be a cause for concern. Budd—Chiari syndrome is also seen in infections such as tuberculosiscongenital venous webs and occasionally in inferior vena caval stenosis.

Often, the patient is known to have a comfrey von Thrombophlebitis towards thrombosisalthough Budd—Chiari syndrome can also be the first symptom of such a tendency. Examples of genetic tendencies include protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, the Factor V Leiden mutation, hereditary anti-thrombin deficiency and prothrombin mutation GA. Many patients have Budd—Chiari syndrome as a complication of polycythemia vera myeloproliferative disease of red blood cells.

A related condition is veno-occlusive diseasewhich occurs in recipients of bone marrow transplants as a complication of their medication.

Although its mechanism is similar, it is not considered a form of Budd—Chiari syndrome. Any obstruction of the venous vasculature of the liver is referred to as Budd—Chiari syndrome, from the venules to the right atrium. This leads to comfrey von Thrombophlebitis portal vein and hepatic sinusoid pressures as the blood flow stagnates.

The increased portal pressure causes increased filtration of vascular fluid with the formation of ascites in the abdomen and collateral venous flow Kompressionsstrümpfe Krampfadern alternative veins leading to esophageal, gastric and rectal varices.

Obstruction also causes centrilobular necrosis and peripheral lobule fatty change due to ischemia. If this condition persists chronically what is known as nutmeg liver will develop.

Renal failure may occur, perhaps due to the body sensing an "underfill" state and subsequent activation of the renin - angiotensin pathways and excess sodium retention. When Budd—Chiari syndrome is suspected, measurements are made of liver enzyme levels and other organ markers creatininecomfrey von Thrombophlebitis, ureaelectrolytesLDH.

Budd—Chiari syndrome is most commonly diagnosed using ultrasound studies of the abdomen and retrograde angiography, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. Ultrasound may show obliteration of hepatic veins, thrombosis or stenosis, spiderweb vessels, large collateral vessels, or a hyperechoic cord replacing a normal vein.

Computed tomography CT or magnetic resonance imaging MRI is sometimes employed although these methods are generally not as sensitive, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. Liver biopsy is nonspecific but sometimes necessary to differentiate between Budd—Chiari syndrome and other causes of hepatomegaly and ascites, such as galactosemia or Reye's syndrome.

A minority of patients can be treated medically with sodium restriction, diuretics to control ascites, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, anticoagulants such as heparin and warfarinand general symptomatic management. Wunden auf der Haut mit Krampfadern majority of patients require further intervention. Milder forms of Budd—Chiari may be treated with surgical shunts to divert blood flow around the obstruction or the liver itself.

Shunts must be placed early after diagnosis for best results. If all the hepatic veins are blocked, the portal comfrey von Thrombophlebitis can be approached via the intrahepatic part of inferior vena cava, a procedure called DIPS direct intrahepatic portocaval shunt, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis.

Patients with stenosis or vena caval obstruction comfrey von Thrombophlebitis benefit from angioplasty. Liver transplantation is an effective treatment for Budd—Chiari. It is generally reserved for patients with fulminant liver failurefailure of shunts or progression of cirrhosis that reduces the life expectancy to 1 year. The most common complications of transplant include rejection, arterial or venous thromboses and bleeding due to anticoagulation. Several studies have attempted to predict the survival of patients with Budd—Chiari syndrome.

Survival is also highly dependent on the underlying cause of the Budd—Chiari syndrome. For example, a patient with an underlying myeloproliferative disorder may progress to acute leukemia, independently of Budd—Chiari syndrome. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Von Rokitansky's syndrome. Not to be confused with Chiari malformation. Progressive abdominal distention in a year-old woman with polycythemia vera". Experience with patients and a review of the literature".

N Engl J Med. French Society of Haematology", comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. On diseases of the liver. Zeitschrift für Heilkunde, Prague. Cardiovascular disease vessels I70—I99— Arteritis Aortitis Buerger's disease. Carotid artery stenosis Renal artery stenosis. Aortoiliac occlusive disease Degos disease Erythromelalgia Fibromuscular dysplasia Raynaud's phenomenon. Arteriovenous fistula Arteriovenous malformation Telangiectasia Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

Cherry hemangioma Halo nevus Spider angioma. Chronic venous insufficiency Chronic comfrey von Thrombophlebitis venous insufficiency Superior vena comfrey von Thrombophlebitis syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome Venous ulcer.

Hypertensive heart disease Hypertensive emergency Hypertensive nephropathy Essential hypertension Secondary hypertension Renovascular hypertension Benign hypertension Pulmonary hypertension Systolic hypertension White coat hypertension. Diseases of the digestive system primarily K20—K93— Coeliac Tropical sprue Blind loop syndrome Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome Whipple's Short bowel syndrome Steatorrhea Milroy disease Bile acid malabsorption. Abdominal angina Mesenteric ischemia Angiodysplasia Bowel obstruction: Proctitis Radiation proctitis Proctalgia fugax Rectal prolapse Anismus, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis.

Upper Hematemesis Melena Lower Hematochezia. Peritonitis Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Hemoperitoneum Pneumoperitoneum. Retrieved from " https: Hepatology Diseases of veins, lymphatic vessels Postoperative Empfehlungen Thrombophlebitis lymph nodes Rare syndromes Syndromes affecting the hepatobiliary system Medical triads, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis.

Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page comfrey von Thrombophlebitis last edited on 5 Novemberat By using this site, you agree to the Varizen Salbe Bedienungsanleitung of Use and Privacy Policy. Budd—Chiari syndrome secondary to cancer, note clot in the inferior vena cava and the metastasis in the liver.

Inflammation Comfrey von Thrombophlebitis Aortitis Buerger's disease. Hypertension Hypertensive heart disease Hypertensive emergency Hypertensive nephropathy Essential hypertension Secondary hypertension Renovascular hypertension Benign comfrey von Thrombophlebitis Pulmonary hypertension Systolic hypertension White coat hypertension.

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